Today, machines and machine tools for these machines have been designed to reduce the need for agriculture and other human labor and to switch to mass production, that is, fabrication. After the other machinery industry and the automotive industry, it was also needed to be used in the production of agricultural machinery. The aim of these designers, as we mentioned at the beginning, was to replace manpower with faster, more reliable and efficient tools. There have been no radical changes in these benches for many years. But continuous progress has been made. Our era’s adoption of computer technology has opened an era in metal cutting works. This event is often referred to as “Computer Aided Numerical Control”. Its abbreviation is CNC. This type of machine tools spread to the agricultural machinery industry after other branches of industry and prompted the manufacturers to invest in these machines. In this way, the agricultural machinery industry tended to approach European standards and serial, error-free production was started in production. In this study, the introduction of CNC, machine types and programming techniques will be discussed.
HISTORY OF CNC MACHINES:
The idea of numerical control II. At the end of World War II, it was put forward for the production of complex aircraft parts needed by the U.S. air force. Because it was not possible to produce such parts with the existing machine tools of that day. To realize this, PARSONS CORPORATION and MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) have started joint work. In 1952, they carried out the first successful work in this field by equipping a CINCINNATTI-HYDROTEL milling machine with Numerical Control. Since this date, many machine tool manufacturers have started to manufacture Numerical Controlled workbenches. Initially, vacuum tubes, electrical relays, and complex control interfaces were used in NC machine tools. However, they had to be repaired or even renewed frequently. Later, miniature electronic tube and monolithic circuits began to be used, which were more useful in NC machine tools. Rapid developments in computer technology have also affected Numerical Controlled systems. Today, more advanced integrated circuit elements, cheap and reliable hardware are used in NC machines. With the introduction of ROM (Read Only Memory) technology, it became possible to store programs in memory. As a result, these systematic developments led to the birth of CNC (Computer Numerical Control). The CNC is then turned into a lathe, drill, etc. It has been widely used in machine tools.
WHAT IS CNC?
Computer Numerical Control (Computer Numerical Control) basic idea of machine tools numbers, letters and so on. It is a system that consists of symbols and can operate with the help of commands coded according to a certain logic and program the part of the machine control unit (MCU).
In Computerized Numerical Control, as a result of computerization of the bench control unit, the programs can be preserved, as well as stopping the program at every stage of part production, making necessary changes in the program, continuing the program from where it left off, and storing the program in its final form. For this reason, it is sufficient to upload the program to the control unit once. Transfer of the programs to the workbench, perforated paper tapes (Punched Tapes), Magnetic Tapes (Magnetic Tapes) etc. carried out via data carriers.