Computer Numerical Control


Today, machines and machine tools for these machines have been designed to reduce the need for agriculture and other human labor and to switch to mass production, that is, fabrication. After the other machinery industry and the automotive industry, it was also needed to be used in the production of agricultural machinery. The aim of these designers, as we mentioned at the beginning, was to replace manpower with faster, more reliable and efficient tools. There have been no radical changes in these benches for many years. But continuous progress has been made. Our era’s adoption of computer technology has opened an era in metal cutting works. This event is often referred to as “Computer Aided Numerical Control”. Its abbreviation is CNC. This type of machine tools spread to the agricultural machinery industry after other branches of industry and prompted the manufacturers to invest in these machines. In this way, the agricultural machinery industry tended to approach European standards and serial, error-free production was started in production. In this study, the introduction of CNC, machine types and programming techniques will be discussed.


The idea of ​​numerical control II. At the end of World War II, it was put forward for the production of complex aircraft parts needed by the U.S. air force. Because it was not possible to produce such parts with the existing machine tools of that day. To realize this, PARSONS CORPORATION and MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) have started joint work. In 1952, they carried out the first successful work in this field by equipping a CINCINNATTI-HYDROTEL milling machine with Numerical Control. Since this date, many machine tool manufacturers have started to manufacture Numerical Controlled workbenches. Initially, vacuum tubes, electrical relays, and complex control interfaces were used in NC machine tools. However, they had to be repaired or even renewed frequently. Later, miniature electronic tube and monolithic circuits began to be used, which were more useful in NC machine tools. Rapid developments in computer technology have also affected Numerical Controlled systems. Today, more advanced integrated circuit elements, cheap and reliable hardware are used in NC machines. With the introduction of ROM (Read Only Memory) technology, it became possible to store programs in memory. As a result, these systematic developments led to the birth of CNC (Computer Numerical Control). The CNC is then turned into a lathe, drill, etc. It has been widely used in machine tools.

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Computer Numerical Control (Computer Numerical Control) basic idea of ​​machine tools numbers, letters and so on. It is a system that consists of symbols and can operate with the help of commands coded according to a certain logic and program the part of the machine control unit (MCU).

In Computerized Numerical Control, as a result of computerization of the bench control unit, the programs can be preserved, as well as stopping the program at every stage of part production, making necessary changes in the program, continuing the program from where it left off, and storing the program in its final form. For this reason, it is sufficient to upload the program to the control unit once. Transfer of the programs to the workbench, perforated paper tapes (Punched Tapes), Magnetic Tapes (Magnetic Tapes) etc. carried out via data carriers.


Viking symbols

Symbol of the life cycle: Yggdrasil
Yggdrasil is among the most important symbols of the Vikings. Connecting the 9 realms of the Scandinavian universe, this tree symbolizes the cycle of life. At the same time, the Vikings believed that the fruits of the Yggdrasil tree kept their gods young and immortal.

There is another story, with Yggdrasil representing one of the most influential Norse beliefs; According to Viking belief, the last male and female Viking warrior to survive the war will unite with the roots of this tree and spread humanity back to the world after Ragnorok (Apocalypse in Viking belief).


Symbol of the past, present and future: Wyrd Network
Among the greatest Viking beliefs was that no one could escape fate and the gods. The word fate was very important to the Vikings, and according to their belief, the people’s fate was determined by beings called Norn who lived under Yggdrasil. The Norns used to weave the destiny of people under this tree in a magic web and would not let anyone escape from this web.

The Vikings believed that when they looked at the Wyrd web, symbolizing the fate that the Norns had spun, they could see memories of the past, present, and future. In fact, many women who sent their loved ones to war or could not join the war were trying to find out whether their relatives could return from the war by looking at this sign.

Symbol of luck and holiness: Swastika
Long before the swastika was defiled by Nazi Germany in World War II, it was seen as a symbol of luck and sanctity for the Vikings. The Swastika, believed to bring luck, power and holiness to its owners, is engraved on hundreds of personal items.


Symbol of wisdom and intelligence: Ravens
Ravens were extremely important animals to the Vikings. According to the belief, the Viking god Odin had two ravens named Muninn (memory) and Huginn (thought). These ravens would fly past Odin only to gather information about the nine kingdoms and whisper this information in Odin’s ear. The ravens in many of Odin’s depictions were actually Muninn and Huginn.

Another reason why the ravens were so important was that Ragnar Lothbrok, whom most people knew from the show but believed to be a real-life warrior, included the raven in his banner. Ragnar and his army’s use of raven banners and the fact that they were never defeated under those banners made the ravens a sacred symbol in the eyes of the Vikings.

In memory of the soldiers who lost their lives in the war: Valknut
Valknut, which became one of the most important symbols of the Vikings, was referred to as Odin’s knot and represented the Viking warriors who lost their lives in the war. Valr means warrior, knut means knot, and each corner of the knot represents the nine realms of the Norse universe. Odin’s knot also symbolizes the life cycle between pregnancy and motherhood.


Odin’s horns: Triskelion
This symbol, known as the triskele, triskelion and triple helix, is the kind that you can come across in every production about Vikings. According to the Vikings, Odin had a talent for poetry that would make the gods jealous, and he stole this talent from Kvasir, who is known as the wisest man who ever lived. To the Vikings, the triskelion was a sacred symbol showing the connections of wisdom, poetry, and Odin.

Odin’s spear: Gungnir
Gungnir was a weapon that could never miss its target, as it was equipped with magic symbols according to Viking belief. The weapon was a symbol not only of Odin’s power, but also of courage, inspiration, wisdom and skill.

When you do a research about Vikings, one of the most common symbols you come across is dragons. Dragons were so important to the Vikings that these warriors, who loved to invade overseas, would invariably place dragon symbols on the prows of their ships.

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To the Vikings, dragons were real, but how they came to be was very different from our current perception of dragons. To them, dragons were reptilian beings without wings, and only a few could vent fire from their mouths. So dragons were kind of huge snakes to the Vikings.

There were dragons more inclined to our perception, though most of them were like giant snakes, a gigantic cosmic force in Norse mythology. For example, Níðhöggri lay at the roots of Ygdrassil and waited for Ragnarok to happen. According to the Vikings, Jörmugandr was so gigantic that his body could envelop the whole world and bite his own tail.